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Blepharophimosis–mental retardation syndromes (BMRS) include a group of clinically and etiologically heterogeneous conditions, which can occur as isolated features or as part of distinct disorders displaying multiple congenital anomalies. We report on two siblings, a 6‐year‐old girl and an...
Hajdu–Cheney syndrome (HCS) is an autosomal dominant condition comprising osteolysis of the terminal phalanges, characteristic craniofacial abnormalities, dental anomalies, and proportionate short stature. The clinical and radiological findings develop and progress with age. Here, we report on...
Cardiovascular abnormalities are important features of Costello syndrome and other Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes (“RASopathies”). We conducted clinical, pathological and molecular analyses of 146 patients with an HRAS mutation including 61 enrolled in an ongoing longitudinal study and 85 from...
Carbimazole (CMZ) and its active metabolite methimazole (MMI) are antithyroid medications, which can result in MMI/CMZ embryopathy in susceptible individuals. The incidence of birth defects related to MMI/CMZ embryopathy remains unclear as several epidemiologic studies failed to prove a...
Individuals with alleles containing 55–200 CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene are premutation carriers. The premutation allele has been shown to lead to a number of types of clinical involvement, including shyness, anxiety, social deficits, attention deficit...
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a common autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance but extreme variability of expression. Monozygotic (MZ) twins with NF1 who have phenotypic discordances are a useful tool in evaluating which traits are influenced by non‐hereditary influences such as second...
Hereditary hypophosphatemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) is characterized by rickets, hyperphosphaturia, hypophosphatemia, elevated 1,25‐dihydroxyvitamin‐D, increased gastrointestinal calcium absorption and hypercalciuria. Serum calcium, 25‐hydroxyvitamin‐D and PTH levels are...
Carnitine deficiency or coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency may present with hypotonia, poor growth, easy fatigability, and apnea. This constellation of findings can also be seen in individuals with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS). Animal studies indicate that increased fat mass due to obesity...
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