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Highlights ► Dataset with more than one million radiation measurements at six levels is analyzed. ► Diffuse conditions show higher fractions of PAR at all levels than direct conditions. ► Transmitted fraction in beech is <1% of above-canopy PAR, higher for spruce. ► Solar elevation is not...
Highlights ► We evaluate spatial variability of throughfall amount, raindrops, and erosivity. ► Raindrops and erosivity also vary spatially same as throughfall amount. ► Canopy structure dominates spatial distribution of throughfall. ► Throughfall distribution is correlated with the...
Highlights ► Six leaf wetness models were compared with input at different time resolutions. ► The models adopt either a physically based or an empirical approach. ► An infection model was introduced in the evaluation of models performance. ► The rankings of the models are quite respected...
Highlights ► We measured drop diameter and velocity under and outside the maize canopy. ► Foliage reduced the overall number and increased the size ( D 50 ) of throughfall drops. ► Calculations pointed to a drop detachment threshold of 3.75 mm, consistent with data. ► Drop acceleration...
Highlights ► China has the second largest area of rice cultivation and highest rice production in the world, and experienced significant global warming over the last five decades. ► We examined the changes in extreme temperature stress over the past five decades by quantifying the indices of...
Highlights ► Much attention is now being paid to spatial-temporal total evaporation ( ET ) changes in tropical rainforests. ► Our question in this paper was “What are the interannual variations in ET in a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest?” ► To answer this question, we estimated...
Highlights ► In the warmest and driest years the ecosystem was a significant source of CO 2 . ► CO 2 flux IAV is largely controlled by changes in ecosystem responses to climate. ► The negative interaction of climate and ecosystem responses reduces NEE IAV.
Highlights ► Estimates of data uncertainties are required for model–data fusion. ► We quantified uncertainties in optical measurements of leaf area index (LAI). ► Random measurement errors are small compared to potential systematic biases. ► Systematic errors are potentially large but...
Highlights ► A daily water balance model for tropical forests. ► A new statistical way to estimate permanent wilting point and field capacity with time domain reflectometer data. ► Explicit modeling of water taken up by tree roots. ► Quantification of the duration and intensity of tree...
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