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Nucleic acids from microbes were known to be immunogenic for a long time, but their sensors have been only recently identified. Two types of sensors, Toll-like receptors (TLR) and the RIG-I-like receptors (RLR), principally respond to nucleic acid. Discovery of these sensors have opened basic...
Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) recognizes viral double-stranded RNA and its synthetic analog polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) and induces type I interferon (IFN), inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production and dendritic cell (DC) maturation via the adaptor protein TICAM-1 (also...
Non-self RNA appearing in a cell as a result of viral replication is detected by a cytoplasmic sensor called RIG-I-like receptor (RLR). RLR consists of RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2, which are DExD/H helicases. Domain structures of RLR for detecting non-self RNA and for relaying signals downstream have...
The detection of microbial components by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and the subsequent triggering of innate immune responses constitute the first line of defense against infections. Recently, much attention has been focused on cytosolic nucleic acid receptors; the activation of these...
Unmethylated DNA with CpG-motifs is recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and pleiotropic immune responses are elicited. Macrophages and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) produce proinflammatory cytokines to B/K-type CpG-DNA, whereas plasmacytoid DCs induce type I interferons to A/D-type...
The Toll-like receptors (TLR), mediating innate immune activation upon recognition of viral nucleic acids, represent promising targets for the development of adjuvants. Therefore, there is great interest in unraveling the underlying mechanisms of ligand recognition. Studies aiming to identify...
Forward genetic approaches have contributed to our understanding of how the host senses infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses and fungi. Beginning with the initial discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as primary sensors involved in the recognition of microbial components, our laboratory...
The last ten years of research in the field of innate immunity have been incredibly fertile: the transmembrane Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were discovered as guardians protecting the host against microbial attacks and the emerging pathways characterized in detail. More recently, cytoplasmic...
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