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The neural circuitry implicated in addictive drug use, which appears to be down-regulated in early abstinence, corresponds closely with brain reward pathways. A literature review suggests that responses to incentive stimuli and the ability to inhibit reflexive responses, both of which have been...
Chronic alcoholism leads to localized brain damage, which is prominent in superior frontal cortex but mild in motor cortex. The likelihood of developing alcohol dependence is associated with genetic markers. GABA A receptor expression differs between alcoholics and controls, whereas glutamate...
Despite the advent of improved pharmacological treatments to alleviate substance-related desires, psychological approaches will continue to be required. However, the current psychological treatment that most specifically focuses on desires and their management—cue exposure (CE)—has not lived...
Alcohol and nicotine dependence are commonly occurring disorders that together represent the most important preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While there have been differences of opinion as to which disorder to treat first when they occur, there is growing...
Long-term exposure to ethanol leads to an imbalance in different excitatory and inhibitory amino acids. When ethanol consumption is reduced or completely stopped, these imbalances in different amino acids and neurotransmitters are behaviorally expressed in the form of ethanol withdrawal....
The increasing evidence that many addictive phenomena have a genetic and neurobiological basis promises improvements in societal responses to addiction that raise important ethical and social policy issues. One of the major potential benefits of such research is improved treatment of drug...
Stimulant abuse and dependence are disproportionately problematic due to the combination of legal and social issues added to the serious behavioural and biological features of the disorders. These problems are compounded by adverse consequences for families and society. Illegality and stigma...
Alcohol biomarkers such as carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) have significant potential for enhancing the quality of medical treatment in primary health care settings. Recent studies demonstrate that these laboratory tests can help the general...
Current pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence in humans (e.g., naltrexone, acamprosate) are meeting with only limited therapeutic success. The development of novel pharmacotherapies is urgently needed but is reliant upon the screening of large numbers of candidate “anticraving” drugs using...
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