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The paper starts from the premise that nobody intends on purpose to pollute the environment, render animal species extinct, etc. And yet what nobody intends happens all the time. The present paper discusses to what extent the nonintended consequences of purposeful human activities are related to...
Many of the ideas and practises of industrial ecology are not new. Nowhere was this more apparent than in the extensive waste reduction and recycling programmes implemented by Henry Ford and the Ford Motor Company at the famous River Rouge complex during the 1920s and 1930s. Perhaps the most...
Regulatory mechanisms for post-consumer recycling have come under criticism over the past decade. This essay considers the perceived flaws of New York City's recycling programmes and offers a discussion of the role one set of market agents, scrap material dealers, has played (both since the 19th...
The construction of the first generation of railways in Ontario, Canada, was undertaken without the benefit of adequate capital investment. The result was cheaply-built track and rolling stock that wore out with unanticipated rapidity. Substantial replacement and design changes became a part of...
This analysis of the history of corporate recycling in the USA during World War II emphasises the extent to which business has historically led in efforts to recover and reuse waste materials. It begins by establishing that prior to World War II large corporations had developed considerable...
In this contribution we discuss the context, theory and significance of industrial symbiosis in the former Soviet Union, drawing information from original documents in Russian as well as international scientific literature. We describe the Soviet concepts of 'combined production', present from...
This study examines how agricultural science, from the mid-19th century to present day, has maintained that urban technology should be designed in response to agricultural interests. Recycling of urban waste was regarded in the mid-19th century as a way of augmenting the fertility of the soil,...
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