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Aversive events rapidly and potently excite certain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), promoting phasic increases in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. This is in apparent contradiction to a wealth of literature demonstrating that most VTA dopamine neurons are...
Pharmacological treatment provides mild symptom improvement but is associated with frequent AEs and higher treatment discontinuation than placebo, particularly when no concomitant psychotherapy is administered. Stimulants appear more efficacious than non-stimulant drugs and the former should be...
These data indicate that acute administration of cannabis and cocaine has opposite effects on reversal learning. The effects of cocaine, but not cannabis, depend on interindividual genetic differences in the dopamine D2 receptor gene.
There is much evidence suggesting that the mesoamygdala dopaminergic (DAergic) system plays a crucial role in the formation and expression of fear conditioning, with both D1 and D2 receptors being involved. In addition, cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R) signaling modulates DAergic pathways. The...
Consistent with mice, amphetamine increased motoric activity in humans without increasing exploration. Given that BD patients exhibit heightened exploration, these data further emphasize the limitation of amphetamine-induced hyperactivity as a suitable model for BD. Further, these studies...
Together, these data suggest that chronic ethanol exposure drives impairments in the ability to use reward-paired cues to adaptively regulate behavior and that mGluR2/3 receptors represent a therapeutic target for restoration of these deficits in behavioral control in the alcoholic.
CBDA is very well tolerated and devoid of the sedative side effect profile of benzodiazepines, justifying its clinical investigation as a novel AN treatment.
There are two particularly sensitive sites distinguishing the response to stress in CMS model. In the brain, it is MHb, while on the periphery this predictor is SST level in plasma. These changes may broaden an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the stress response and point to the...
These results indicated that the blockade of M 3 muscarinic receptor in the vMPFC attenuates the CER expression.
The present findings indicated that paeoniflorin exerted analgesic and hypnotic effects via adenosine A 1 Rs and might be of potential use in the treatment of neuropathic pain and associated insomnia.
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