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The ocean’s overturning circulation is inherently three-dimensional, yet modern quantitative estimates of the overturning typically represent the subsurface circulation as a two-dimensional, two-cell streamfunction that varies with latitude and depth only. This approach suppresses information...
The occurrence, drivers, and implications of small-scale O (2–5) km diameter coherent vortices, referred to as submesoscale eddies, over the inner shelf south of Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts, are examined using high-frequency (HF), radar-based, high-resolution (400 m) observations of surface...
This study first detects the decadal variability in the depths of the East/Japan Sea (EJS) Intermediate Water (ESIW) using in situ observations and relates it to strong El Niño–Southern Oscillations (ENSOs). Using multitaper cross-spectrum and cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function...
In Greenland’s glacial fjords, heat and freshwater are exchanged between glaciers and the ocean. Submarine melting of glaciers has been implicated as a potential trigger for recent glacier acceleration, and observations of ocean heat transport are increasingly being used to infer the submarine...
A simple model of an internal wave advected by an oscillating barotropic flow suggests flaws in standard approaches to estimating properties of the internal tide. When the M 2 barotropic tidal current amplitude is of similar size to the phase speed of the M 2 baroclinic tide, spectral and...
Subsurface temperature biases in coupled models can seriously impair their capability in generating skillful seasonal forecasts. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2), coupled model, which is used for seasonal forecast in several...
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