Medium chain acyl‐CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is one of the most common fatty acid oxidation disorders. A subpopulation of children with MCADD present with metabolic crisis induced by fasting or illness, become lethargic, and can experience seizures or coma, culminating in a 20% mortality rate during the first episode. The frequency of these metabolic crises can be reduced with early diagnosis and treatment. The prevalence of MCADD in the United States is estimated to be 1 per 15,000 with p.K304E (c.985A > G) accounting for 90% of mutant alleles. In an 18‐month period after initiating screening, the New York State Newborn Screening Mass Spectrometry Laboratory screened 385,893 newborns and referred 511 samples with elevated (≥0.3 µmol/L) octanoylcarnitine (C8) levels for molecular testing. Of these referrals, six p.K304E homozygotes and 154 heterozygotes were identified. Twenty infants were biochemically confirmed with MCADD, per report from the child's pediatrician and/or treatment center. In these 20 cases, p.K304E accounted for only 47.5% of the mutant alleles. Further testing showed a second variant, p.Y42H, accounted for 7.5% of mutant alleles while the remaining 45% were unknown. Samples from all diagnosed non‐p.K304E homozygous infants, and samples with C8 levels ≥1.0 µmol/L were sequenced (n = 16). Six novel and seven previously reported mutations were detected. These results suggest that p.K304E has a far lower representation in New York newborns with MCADD than current literature estimates and its full mutational spectrum is still unknown. © 2008 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
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