Summary: We produced transgenic rice calli, which constitutively express each of four KNOX family class 1 homeobox genes of rice, OSH1, OSH16, OSH15, and OSH71, and found that constitutive and ectopic expression of such genes inhibits normal regeneration from transformed calli, which showed continuous growth around their shoot‐regenerating stages. Transgenic calli transferred onto regeneration medium began to display green spots, a sign of regeneration, but most of the transformants continued to propagate green spots at given stages. In the normal shoot‐regeneration process of calli, expression of endogenous OSH1 was restricted in presumptive shoot‐regenerating regions of calli and not observed in other areas. This restricted expression pattern should be required for further differentiation of the regenerating shoots. Thus our present results support the proposed function that KNOX family class 1 homeobox genes play a role in the formation and maintenance of the undetermined meristematic state of cells. genesis 30:231–238, 2001. © 2001 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.
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