In vitro and in vivo mycotoxin production of Fusarium species isolated from Finnish grains
AbstractThe capabilities of seven Finnish Fusarium species to produce mycotoxins under controlled laboratory ( in vitro ) conditions as well as on barley and wheat in the field ( in vivo ) were studied using mass spectrometric methods. In addition, the contaminating Fusarium species of the in vivo samples were identified and quantified with morphological and real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. All investigated isolates (representing the species F. avenaceum, F. arthrosporioides, F. tricinctum, F. poae, F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. sporotrichioides ) produced mycotoxins on rice cultures and their production capabilities were generally in accordance with the available literature. The main mycotoxins produced were deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and zearalenone by F. culmorum and F. graminearum , beauvericin, diacetoxyscirpenol and HT-2/T-2 - toxins by F. sporotrichioides , beauvericin, enniatins, fusarenon-X, diacetoxyscirpenol and nivalenol by F. poae and enniatins and moniliformin by F. avenaceum/F. arthrosporioides and F. tricinctum . Most mycotoxins that were produced in vitro were also produced in vivo when concerning F. culmorum, F. graminearum and F. avenaceum . Statistical significance was recorded between the production of mycotoxins in vitro and in vivo for HT-2 and T-2 toxins in barley and for deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin in wheat.