Evaluation of Linear Trend Tests Using Resampling Techniques
AbstractA number of parametric and non-parametric linear trend tests for time series are evaluated in terms of test size and power, using also resampling techniques to form the empirical distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis of no linear trend. For resampling, both bootstrap and surrogate data are considered. Monte Carlo simulations were done for several types of residuals (uncorrelated and correlated with normal and nonnormal distributions) and a range of small magnitudes of the trend coefficient. In particular for AR (1) and ARMA (1, 1) residual processes, we investigate the discrimination of strong autocorrelation from linear trend with respect to the sample size. The correct test size is obtained for larger data sizes as autocorrelation increases and only when a randomization test that accounts for autocorrelation is used. The overall results show that the type I and II errors of the trend tests are reduced with the use of resampled data. Following the guidelines suggested by the simulation results, we could find significant linear trend in the data of land air temperature and sea surface temperature.