Aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid in feed and milk from dairy farms in São Paulo, Brazil
AbstractThe occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) in feeds, and AFM 1 and CPA in milk was determined in dairy farms located in the northeastern region of S o Paulo state, Brazil, between October 2005 and February 2006. AF and CPA determinations were performed by HPLC. AFB 1 was found in 42% of feed at levels of 1.0-26.4 µg kg -1 (mean: 7.1 ± 7.2 µg kg -1 ). The concentrations of AFM 1 in raw milk varied between 0.010 and 0.645 µg l -1 (mean: 0.104 ± 0.138 µg l -1 ). Only one sample was above the tolerance limit adopted in Brazil (0.50 µg l -1 ) for AFM 1 in milk. Regarding CPA in feed, six (12%) samples showed concentrations of 12.5-153.3 µg kg -1 (mean: 57.6 ± 48.7 µg kg -1 ). CPA was detected in only three milk samples (6%) at levels of 6.4, 8.8 and 9.1 µg l -1 . Concentrations of aflatoxins and CPA in feed and milk were relatively low, although the high frequency of both mycotoxins indicates the necessity to continuously monitor dairy farms to prevent contamination of feed ingredients.