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Role of Trace Elements in Primary
Is Mineral Water Style or Prophylaxis?
Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Institute
of Technology, Opole, Poland
Received April 3, 2006; Accepted April 20, 2006
A negative relationship between water hardness and cardiovascular
mortality rate was demonstrated and became a source of interest regarding
minerals and trace metals in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, cardio-
vascular diseases, and arterial hypertension. Higher incidences of sudden
death, cerebrovascular diseases, arterial hypertension, and coronary heart
disease have been reported in soft water areas. A major research effort has
been devoted to the problem in an attempt to find a protective factor in
hard water or a detrimental factor or element in soft water. The roles of cal-
cium, magnesium, cobalt, lithium, vanadium, silicon, manganese, and cop-
per have been considered potentially beneficial, whereas those of
cadmium, lead, silver, zinc, and thallium have been considered potentially
harmful. Cobalt and zinc have been attributed both roles. In the present
article, the role of trace quantities of several elements in mineral water in
the etiopathogenesis of primary arterial hypertension is reviewed.
Biological Trace Element Research
Vol. 115, 2007