European representatives of Apium sensu lato (Apiaceae), and Apium prostratum and Naufraga balearica , were studied with morphological, fruit anatomical, and palynological methods. Morphometric data were compared with phylogenetic results from previous molecular studies. This confirms that most of the European Apium species belong to a separate group corresponding to the previously named genus Helosciadium . All these species had previously been formally named as Helosciadium species, except for the new combination Helosciadium bermejoi , which is formally described here. Molecular studies place Apium prostratum and Naufraga balearica close to Apium graveolens , the type species of Apium. Our morphometric results show similarities of Naufraga with H. bermejoi , but fruit anatomy distinguishes it both from Helosciadium and from A. graveolens / prostratum . The placement of Cyclospermum leptophyllum in a separate genus is confirmed. Diagnostic keys to the genera and Helosciadium species, and an annotated checklist are given.
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