This article presents the results from a programme of bulk soil sampling and flotation of first and second millennium a . d . early farming, ‘Iron Age’, archaeological sites in Rwanda conducted in 2006–2007 alongside a new set of associated radiocarbon dates, which contribute toward the development of a chronology of plant use for the region. This research has identified the earliest examples of pearl millet ( Pennisetum glaucum ), finger millet ( Eleusine coracana ) and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ) in Great Lakes Africa and thus this article also discusses the significance of these finds within the later archaeology of the region and presents a brief synthesis of the direct archaeological evidence for finger millet in sub-Saharan Africa.
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