Who Gets Formal Sector Jobs?:Determinants of Formal-Informal Participation in Brazilian Metropolitan Areas
AbstractThis study examines the extent to which social factors influence entry into formal or informal sector employment in Brazil. Using data from the 1980 Brazilian Census, this research shows that low education and being female are the primary characteristics determining participation in the formal sector. Although being female is strongly and positively related to participation in the informal sector market, it is women with the lowest levels of schooling and non-White women who especially participate in informal employment. Gender does not make a difference for those with at least a high school education. Youths and non-Whites are also disproportionately represented in the informal sector.