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Water-Soluble Radiographic Contrast Media: Ionic vs. Nonionic

Water-Soluble Radiographic Contrast Media: Ionic vs. Nonionic

Abstract

FeatureWater-Soluble Radiographic Contrast Media: Ionic vs. Nonionic SAGE Publications, Inc.1990DOI: 10.1177/153100359000300209 Helen C. Redman M.D. George L. MillerM.D. The use of the x-ray method for medical diagnosis began just at the turn of the twentieth century. Within a few years contrast material was used to enhance visualization of the soft tissues. By the 1920s sodium iodide was being used for intravenous urography,1 but serious toxicity precluded its widespread use and led to a continued search for a more acceptable agent. In 1929 Swick, while working in Europe, developed iodinated pyridone compounds for intravascular use.2 These compounds, called Uroselectan and Uroselectan B, were the first compounds safe enough for common use, though toxicity continued to be a serious problem. Within a year or two after the introduction of Swick's monoiodinated pyridone compound, diiodinated pyridones were in use. These were somewhat less toxic and, since they had double the iodine per molecule, could be used in smaller amounts. These compounds became the primary contrast media for intravascular use for over two decades. Thorotrast was an interesting side road in the development of safe contrast media. It was a 25% solution of thorium dioxide that was of very low immediate toxicity
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