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Walking Together or Divided Agenda?:Comparing Landmines and Small-Arms Campaigns

Walking Together or Divided Agenda?:Comparing Landmines and Small-Arms Campaigns


Walking Together or Divided Agenda? Comparing Landmines and Small-Arms Campaigns STEFAN BREM & KEN RUTHERFORD* Center for International Studies, Zurich, Switzerland, and Department of Political Science, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, MO, USA Introduction JUST AS THE 19TH CENTURY closed with the 1899 Hague Peace Confer- ence, where 26 governments were represented, the 20th century ended with the 1999 Hague Appeal for Peace (HAP) Conference, where the delegates represented more than 1,000 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The HAP Conference delegates took special pride in the entry into force on 1 March 1999 of the NGO-inspired Ottawa Treaty banning anti-personnel landmines (APMs). During the conference (11-15 May 1999), the International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA) was launched, a coalition of interna- tional NGOs calling for the prevention of 'proliferation and unlawful use of light weapons'.' The IANSA and other NGO campaigns that started in The Hague held up the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL), a coali- tion of more than 1,300 NGOs from 70 countries, as an example of how to work with medium-sized states on security issues - even in opposition to ma- jor powers, such as the United States, China, and Russia. With the ICBL's encouragement
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