The role of dairy products and non alcoholic beverages in bone fractures among schoolage children
AbstractIn order to assess consumption of the calcium rich dairy products, intake of non alcoholic beverages and physical activity as risk factors for bone fractures among schoolage children, a case control study was undertaken in Athens, Greece. During 1995 one hundred children 7 to 14 years old (74 boys and 26 girls) with single uncomplicated fractures of the upper and lower extremities and no evidence of coexisting metabolic condition affecting bone fragility were compared with 100 age-and gender-matched controls. The analysis was undertaken by modeling the data through conditional logistic regression. Several indicators point to an increased risk of fractures among physically active children, although none of the individual variables was statistically significant. Somatometrc factors were not related to fractures, although children with more advanced stage of development at Tanner's scale were apparently at increased risk. Intake of dairy products and of carbonated non cola beverages was not related to the occurrence of fractures. By contrast, intake of non carbonated beverages, mainly fruit juices, and of cola beverages were significantly associated with elevated risks of fractures for an increase of one-half can per day, the odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals were 1.6 (1.2 to 2.3) and 1.7 (1.2 to 2.6) respectively. In the absence of other common elements between cola and non carbonated beverages the positive associations of these beverages, with bone fractures probably reflect the increased rehydration needs of active children who are also at high risk for injuries.