AbstractObjective: Tobacco, alcohol, and physical inactivity are now among the top 10 risk factors for mortality in the Americas region. Subsequently, a more complete understanding of the various cultural factors that influence health behaviors such as these is needed. Method: This study investigates how religion influences the use of alcohol and cigarettes within a large, nationally representative sample of older adults in Mexico (Mexican Health and Aging Study, N = 10,399). Results : Religious salience and participation in religious activities are both significantly associated with smoking status, but not alcohol use. Discussion: This is one of the first studies to examine these associations in a developing country. Despite cultural differences, the negative relationship between religion and smoking in Mexico corresponds to associations seen in the United States and other Western countries. This type of information may be useful to health researchers, providers, and policy makers attempting to reduce deaths due to preventable causes.