Problem Creation and Resolution in Unionized Workplaces:A Review of the Grievance Procedure
AbstractIn this paper, grievance filing and handling is placed in the broader context of problem creation and resolution. Management actions lead to problems when the action is severe enough or has a large scope. Worker reaction is based on both a desire and a reason to overturn the action. Problems become grievances when contrac tual, precedential, or past practice rights apply to the situation. The existence and applicability of rights usually leads to the griev ance procedure being used to resolve problems. When rights are unclear, the pursuit of interests leads to other channels being used. There are four problem resolution channels examined: (1) eco nomic power against high-level management, (2) economic power against low-level management, (3) informal negotiations between the union and management, and (4) the grievance procedure. The paper examines the various aspects of problems, conditions, and behaviors that determine which channel is selected for resolution and the outcome of that resolution.