Placental Villous Glucose Metabolism and Hormone Release Respond to Varying Oxygen Tensions
AbstractObjective: The effects of varying oxygen tensions on tissue metabolic behavior are not well understood, yet many intracellular pathways are influenced by them. In the placenta, optimal in vivo oxygen tension at the villous level is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of varying oxygen tensions on glucose metabolism and hormone from perifused placental villous explants. Methods: Placentas from term normal pregnancies (n = 8) were individually minced into villous fragments, placed into three parallel chambers for each placenta, and continuously perifused for 6 hous with nonrecirculating medium aerated with either 0%, 20% or 95% oxygen yielding mean oxygen tensions of 76 mmHg, 167 mmHg, and 543 mmHg respectively, Outflow medium was removed at regular intervals and compared to the inflow medium to determine oxygen and glucose consumption as well as lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, hCG, estradiol, and progesterone release. Results: Oxygen consumption was directly proportional to oxygen tension. Glucose consumption was lowest at low oxygen tension, while both lactate and LDH release were lowest at high oxgen tension. Both hCG and progesterone release rates lowest at high oxygen tension. Estradiol release demonstrated a trend similar to that of the other hermones although there was no statistically significant difference among the three different levels of oxygen tension. Conclusion: Varying oxygen tensions affect placental villous glucose metabolism and hormone release. Under lower oxygen tensions, glucose is metabolized through glycolysis rather than through oxidative phosphorylation and is associated with higher lactate release. Exposure to higher oxygen tensions results in reduced hCG and progesterone release. Higher oxygen tensions may be associated with tissue toxicity.