Energy Sources in Laparoscopy
AbstractTraditional monopolar and bipolar electrosurgery remain very useful in laparoscopic surgery. The need for meticulous hemostasis and the tedium of vessel ligation in advanced cases has propelled the development of new energy source devices that have proved to be remarkably helpful in both laparoscopic and open surgery. Energy sources in the form of argon beam coagulation, ultrasonic coagulation, and bipolar vessel sealing systems have revolutionized laparoscopic surgery. Although each of these energy sources has improved the efficiency and safety of minimally invasive techniques, they can also be associated with distressing complications. This report describes the biophysics of these tools, their spectrum of effectiveness, and methods of application that may improve our ability to perform surgery in a safe and proficient manner.