Effects of praise and reproof on paired-associate learning in educationally retarded children
AbstractIt is suggested that success constitutes a threat to underachievers because these Ss have a "need to fail." The present study sought to determine whether praise of underachievers would result in a decrement in subsequent learning performance. 45 underachieving boys in Grades 4, 5, and 6 were matched to 45 non-underachieving boys with respect to ability. 2 equated lists of paired associates were learned by Ss. Between lists |13 of the Ss were praised |13 were reproved, and |13 were told nothing. Results indicated that praise results in slower learning among underachievers while it results in faster learning among nonunderachievers.