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EFFECTS OF AMOUNT OF PRIOR SUCCESS AND FAILURE ON EXPECTATIONS OF SUCCESS AND SUBSEQUENT TASK PERFORMANCE.

Details

Publisher
American Psychological Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1967 by American Psychological Association
ISSN
0022-3514
eISSN
1939-1315
D.O.I.
10.1037/h0024089
Publisher site
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EFFECTS OF AMOUNT OF PRIOR SUCCESS AND FAILURE ON EXPECTATIONS OF SUCCESS AND SUBSEQUENT TASK PERFORMANCE.

Abstract

96 SS WORKED AT A 13-ITEM ANAGRAM TEST. SUCCESS AND FAILURE WERE MANIPULATED IN THE 1ST 3 ITEMS OF THE TEST IN THE 8 PATTERNS POSSIBLE. 1/2 THE SS WERE TOLD THAT THE ANAGRAMS WERE EASIER THAN MOST (HIGH EXPECTATION) AND 1/2 THAT THEY WERE MORE DIFFICULT THAN MOST (LOW EXPECTATION). ALL SS RATED THEIR CHANCES OF SUCCESS BEFORE ATTEMPTING EACH ANAGRAM. THE LAST 10 ANAGRAMS WERE OF APPROXIMATELY 50% DIFFICULTY. MEASURES OF N ACHIEVEMENT AND TEST ANXIETY WERE AVAILABLE PRIOR TO TASK PERFORMANCE. RATINGS OF ANXIETY AND DISAPPOINTMENT WERE OBTAINED FROM A POSTPERFORMANCE QUESTIONNAIRE. RESULTS SHOWED THAT (1) PROBABILITY ESTIMATES WERE MODIFIED BY TASK PERFORMANCE, SHIFTING MORE AFTER PREDOMINANT FAILURE THAN AFTER PREDOMINANT SUCCESS; (2) THE SMALL AMOUNT OF PRIOR EXPERIENCE HAD LOCALIZED EFFECTS ON SUBSEQUENT PERFORMANCE; AND (3) RATINGS OF ANXIETY AND DISAPPOINTMENT WERE NEGATIVELY RELATED TO TASK PERFORMANCE.
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