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EFFECTS OF AMOUNT OF PRIOR SUCCESS AND FAILURE ON EXPECTATIONS OF SUCCESS AND SUBSEQUENT TASK PERFORMANCE.

EFFECTS OF AMOUNT OF PRIOR SUCCESS AND FAILURE ON EXPECTATIONS OF SUCCESS AND SUBSEQUENT TASK PERFORMANCE.

Abstract

96 SS WORKED AT A 13-ITEM ANAGRAM TEST. SUCCESS AND FAILURE WERE MANIPULATED IN THE 1ST 3 ITEMS OF THE TEST IN THE 8 PATTERNS POSSIBLE. 1/2 THE SS WERE TOLD THAT THE ANAGRAMS WERE EASIER THAN MOST (HIGH EXPECTATION) AND 1/2 THAT THEY WERE MORE DIFFICULT THAN MOST (LOW EXPECTATION). ALL SS RATED THEIR CHANCES OF SUCCESS BEFORE ATTEMPTING EACH ANAGRAM. THE LAST 10 ANAGRAMS WERE OF APPROXIMATELY 50% DIFFICULTY. MEASURES OF N ACHIEVEMENT AND TEST ANXIETY WERE AVAILABLE PRIOR TO TASK PERFORMANCE. RATINGS OF ANXIETY AND DISAPPOINTMENT WERE OBTAINED FROM A POSTPERFORMANCE QUESTIONNAIRE. RESULTS SHOWED THAT (1) PROBABILITY ESTIMATES WERE MODIFIED BY TASK PERFORMANCE, SHIFTING MORE AFTER PREDOMINANT FAILURE THAN AFTER PREDOMINANT SUCCESS; (2) THE SMALL AMOUNT OF PRIOR EXPERIENCE HAD LOCALIZED EFFECTS ON SUBSEQUENT PERFORMANCE; AND (3) RATINGS OF ANXIETY AND DISAPPOINTMENT WERE NEGATIVELY RELATED TO TASK PERFORMANCE.
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