Effect of instructions and form of informative feedback on retention of meaningful material
AbstractPresented a series of 32 multiple-choice items to 180 undergraduates. Retention was measured as a function of (a) 3 forms of feedback (a cue which could be used to find the correct alternative, instructions to study the correct alternative, instructions to study correct and incorrect alternatives); (b) 3 immediate tests (nothing, recall, recognition); (c) presence or absence of initial presentation of items; and (d) 2 7-day retention tests (recall, recognition). It was found that when a cue was given, retention was optimal with no immediate test. Following immediate tests, instructions to study all alternatives improved recall but not recognition. It is concluded that the information retained varies with Ss' reactions to feedback and the kind of immediate practice.