AbstractThis study examined cultural differences in assertiveness by using a social learning analysis to better articulate the influence of cultural variables. Differences in self-reported assertion responding between Asian and Caucasian Americans were assessed across nine different situations, and the differences were related to prior experiences, expectancy outcomes, or self-efficacy beliefs. The findings suggest that assertion differences among Asians and Caucasians are situationally specific, with most differences occurring in interactions with strangers. Ethnic differences in self-efficacy paralleled those found for self-reported assertive responding. Compared to Caucasians, Asians tended to experience greater anxiety and guilt, regardless of whether or not they reportedly were less assertive. Implications for counseling Asian Americans using different assertion interventions are discussed.