A Review and Integration of Classification Systems Relevant to Teams in Organizations
AbstractAlthough the determinants of team effectiveness differ across team types, no taxonomy of teams has been widely accepted by researchers or practitioners. This article reviews classification schemes advanced in the psychology and management literatures, and offers an integrative taxonomy consisting of 14 team types classified on 7 underlying contextual dimensions (i.e., fundamental work cycle, physical ability requirements, temporal duration, task structure, active resistance, hardware dependence, and health risk). The 14 team types are divided into two clusters—intellectual work teams (executive, command, negotiation, commission, design, and advisory) and physical work teams (service, production, performance, medical, response, military, transportation, and sports). The discussion addresses the taxonomy's relation to existing classifications, and its role in furthering an understanding of team effectiveness.