The Evolution of Alternative Reproductive Strategies: Fitness Differential, Heritability, and Genetic Correlation Between the Sexes
AbstractAbstract Paternity analyses using molecular markers have become standard in studies of mating systems, parentage, and kinship. In systems where individuals exhibit alternative mating strategies, molecular analyses have been productively used to estimate the reproductive success of each behavioral type and hence the fitness consequences to each individual. Here we review the fitness results in a system of five alternative mating strategies present in one population of side-blotched lizards ( Uta stansburiana ). Males in this population adopt one of three behavioral strategies that differ in their degree of territoriality and mate guarding. In contrast, females adopt one of two strategies that differ in offspring quantity and quality. We use paternity analyses to estimate the fitness of each morph, the heritability of reproductive strategy, and the correlation in strategy between the sexes and discuss the implications of our findings for the evolution and maintenance of reproductive polymorphism in this and other systems.