Instant Access to the Journals you Need

Read Online + Print Articles, for just $40 a month.

Meta-analysis shows significant association between dopamine system genes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Meta-analysis shows significant association between dopamine system genes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Abstract

Abstract Molecular genetic investigations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have found associations with a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) situated in the 3′-untranslated region of dopamine transporter gene ( DAT1 ), a VNTR in exon 3 of dopamine receptor 4 gene ( DRD4 ) and a microsatellite polymorphism located at 18.5 kb from the 5′ end of dopamine receptor 5 gene ( DRD5 ). A number of independent studies have attempted to replicate these findings but the results have been mixed, possibly reflecting inadequate statistical power and the use of different populations and methodologies. In an attempt to clarify this inconsistency, we have combined all the published studies of European and Asian populations up to October 2005 in a meta-analysis to give a comprehensive picture of the role of the three dopamine-related genes using multiple research methods and models. The DRD4 7-repeat (OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.23–1.45, P =2×10 −12 ) and 5-repeat (OR=1.68, 95% CI 1.17–2.41, P =0.005) alleles as well as the DRD5 148-bp allele (OR=1.34, 95% CI 1.21–1.49, P =8×10 −8 ) confer increased risk of ADHD, whereas the DRD4 4-repeat (OR=0.90, 95% CI 0.84–0.97, P =0.004) and DRD5 136-bp (OR=0.57, 95% CI 0.34–0.96, P =0.022) alleles have protective effects. In contrast, we found no compelling evidence for association with the 480-bp allele of DAT (OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.98–1.11, P =0.20). No significant publication bias was detected in current studies. In conclusion, there is a statistically significant association between ADHD and dopamine system genes, especially DRD4 and DRD5 . These findings strongly implicate the involvement of brain dopamine systems in the pathogenesis of ADHD. © The Author 2006. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org
Loading next page...
 
/lp/oxford-university-press/meta-analysis-shows-significant-association-between-dopamine-system-W741WfARhN

You're reading a free preview. Sign up for Instant Access to thousands of journals for just $40/month.

By signing up, you agree to DeepDyve's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

What content is in DeepDyve?

  • Read and share from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from Springer, Elsevier, Nature, IEEE, Wiley-Blackwell and more.
  • All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

Rent Scholarly Articles?

  • Read the full article in your browser.
  • Each month you can print 20 pages for free.
  • Access all of your rentals from the cloud anywhere you have an internet connection.
  • Beautiful reading experience – Full charts and figures, just like the PDF.
  • Read as much as you'd like - whenever you'd like.

Happy Users

“In one word renting from DeepDyve is FANTASTIC!!! ... 99% of the time I only need access to an article for a month or so, so renting the articles is perfect for me.”

Adam S.

“Thanks for a great service! For an unaffiliated science blogger like myself this is like a dream come true.”

Seppo P.

“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”

Daniel C.

“Let me seize this opportunity and congratulate you on the service you are rendering to the scientific community.”

Joao B.