Proteome Differences Between Male and Female Fetal Cells in Amniotic Fluid
AbstractIn mammals, sex development is genetically and hormonally regulated. The process starts with the establishment of chromosomal structures (XY or XX), followed by the expression of sex-dependent genes. In order to elucidate the differential protein profiles between male and female amniocytes, a proteomic approach has been performed in this study. Here, we utilized a proteomics-based approach including 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF MS analysis to obtain differentially expressed proteins between male and female amniocytes. After resolving protein samples with 2D-DIGE technique, 45 proteins corresponding to 28 unique proteins were differentially expressed between male and female amninocytes from three independent batches of amniotic fluid. Of all of these unique identified spots, five of them (annexin A1, cathepsin D, cytoskeletal 19, protein disulfide-isomerase, and vimentin) exhibited more than 1.5-fold upregulation or downregulation in at least two independent experiments. Importantly, the identified proteins involved in protein degradation and protein folding display upregulated in male amniocytes, implying the differential regulations of protein degradation and protein folding during sex development. In conclusion, the identified differentially expressed proteins may be employed as potential signatures for the sex development. Moreover, the established proteomic platform might further utilize to discover the potential biomarkers for the prenatal genetic disorders in fetus.