Mechanisms of the Antioxidant Effects of Nitric Oxide
AbstractThe Janus face of nitric oxide (NO) has prompted a debate as to whether NO plays a deleterious or protective role in tissue injury. There are a number of reactive nitrogen oxide species, such as N 2 O 3 and ONOO - , that can alter critical cellular components under high local concentrations of NO. However, NO can also abate the oxidation chemistry mediated by reactive oxygen species such as H 2 O 2 and O 2 - that occurs at physiological levels of NO. In addition to the antioxidant chemistry, NO protects against cell death mediated by H 2 O 2 , alkylhydroperoxides, and xanthine oxidase. The attenuation of metal/peroxide oxidative chemistry, as well as lipid peroxidation, appears to be the major chemical mechanisms by which NO may limit oxidative injury to mammalian cells. In addition to these chemical and biochemical properties, NO can modulate cellular and physiological processes to limit oxidative injury, limiting processes such as leukocyte adhesion. This review will address these aspects of the chemical biology of this multifaceted free radical and explore the beneficial effect of NO against oxidative stress.