Infection of Baboon Microglia with SIV–HIV Recombinant Viruses: Role of CD4 and Chemokine Receptors
AbstractMicroglia constitute the primary cell type infected with HIV in the brain and play a major role in viral persistence in the CNS and in the development of AIDS dementia. Lack of a suitable animal model and limitations in the availability of human tissues hinder most HIV/AIDS studies investigating the neuropathogenesis of AIDS dementia. The aims of this study were to determine whether baboon microglia can be productively infected with SIV-HIV (SHIV) recombinant viruses in vitro and whether they express HIV-1 receptors and coreceptors. Our results show the presence of mRNA for CD4, CCR5, and CXCR4 chemokine receptors on baboon microglial cells. Microglia lacked mRNA for the CCR3 chemokine receptor. We also show productive infection of baboon microglial cells by two SHIV isolates, SHIV-KU and SHIV-89.6P, and blockade of the infection with soluble CD4 protein, CCR5, and CXCR4 monoclonal antibodies. This study demonstrating the feasibility of infecting baboon microglia with SHIV isolates is an important first step in using the baboon as an alternative nonhuman primate model to study HIV neuropathogenesis.