Adipocytes Differentiated In Vitro from Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells Lack Essential Free Fatty Acids Compared to Adult Adipocytes
AbstractAdult bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) can be differentiated in vitro to become adipocyte-like cells with lipid vacuoles, similar to adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. Little is known regarding the composition of free fatty acids (FFAs) of the in vitro-differentiated adipocytes, or whether it resembles that of native adult adipocytes. We used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify FFA species in BMSC-derived adipocytes and compared them with FFAs found in adipocytes derived from adult adipose tissue. We found that adult adipocytes contained significant percentages of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs, including palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and oleic acid (C18:1); some polyunsaturated FFAs, such as linoleic acid (C18:2), a small percentage of arachidonic acid (C20:4), and very little linolenic acid (C18:3). In comparison, 80%–90% confluent BMSCs contained comparable percentages of palmitic and oleic acids, significantly more arachidonic and stearic acids, very little linoleic acid, and no linolenic acid. After differentiation, compared with adult adipocytes, BMSC-derived adipocytes contained a comparable percentage of palmitic acid, more stearic and arachidonic acids, less oleic acid, almost no linoleic acid, and no detectable linolenic acid. This composition was quite similar to that of undifferentiated BMSCs. The differentiation medium contained only palmitic and stearic acids, with traces of oleic acid; it did not contain the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, the composition of FFAs in BMSC-derived adipocytes was altered compared with adult adipocytes. BMSC-derived adipocytes had an altered composition of saturated and monounsaturated FFAs and lacked essential FFAs that may directly affect signaling related to their lipolysis/lipogenesis functions.