Renal Injury Mediated Calcium Oxalate Nephrolithiasis: Role of Lipid Peroxidation
AbstractThe role of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in renal tubular damage mediated calcium oxalate retention was investigated in a rat model. Hyperoxaluria, without deposition of oxalate in kidney, was induced by administration of ethylene glycol (EG), a precursor of oxalate. Oxidative stress condition was produced by administration of buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis. BSO-treated rats showed a significant (p < 0.001) increase in LPO over EG-treated rats and it was almost doubled in BSO + EG treated rats. LPO was accompanied by significant urinary excretion of renal damage marker enzymes such as γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and cathepsin D, mucoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the BSO and BSO + EG groups but not in the EG group. Urinary excretion of γ-GT (r = +0.90) (p < 0.001) and deposition of oxalate (r = +0.78) (p < 0.001) in kidney positively correlated with LPO. These results suggest that LPO initiates renal damage, thereby leading to calcium oxalate retention and stone formation.