HUMAN TRACHEOBRONCHIAL DEPOSITION AND EFFECT OF A CHOLINERGIC AEROSOL INHALED BY EXTREMELY SLOW INHALATIONS
AbstractTen subjects inhaled the same amounts of cholinergic aerosol of a mass median diameter (MMD) of 7.7 mum in a normal provocation test and in a test with extremely slow inhalations (ESI). This new technique using ESI and large droplets/particles gives a high degree of deposition in small ciliated airways which cannot be obtained by using small particles. The purpose was to compare measured effects with calculated doses of the aerosol in large and small ciliated airways. The effect on large airways was measured by airway resistance (R aw ), and the effect on small airways was measured by the phase III slope of single breath nitrogen test (N 2 -delta). Mouth and throat deposition was calculated from human experimental data, and deposition of the cholinergic aerosol into large and small airways was calculated, using a computerized lung model. The study showed that the extremely slow inhalation caused a larger effect on R aw and tendency to a larger effect on N 2 -delta compared to the effect in the normal provocation. Deposited dose in the large airways, in percent of inhaled dose, was calculated to be 25-33% for normal inhalation and 20-24% for ESI. Calculated deposited dose in the small airways (bronchioles; generations 12-16) was 1.8-3.4% for normal inhalation and 18-25% for ESI. For large airways a stronger effect was induced by ESI, perhaps by the more uniform distribution of particles within each generation, compared to normal inhalations when particles deposit near the bifurcations. Concerning the small airways, N 2 -delta did not differ significantly between normal and ESI provocations, indicating that they did not react much on cholinergic exposure. We believe that our approach using ESI for small airway deposition of a nebulized aerosol can be of value for estimating the effects of various substances on large and small airways.