Evaluation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE)-Like Activity of Acellular Hemoglobin
AbstractDespite the tremendous progress in research on hemoglobin (Hb) cellular and molecular responses, the current understanding of Hb's overall intrinsic toxicity is still limited. The complete mechanism of Hb-induced vasoconstriction has not yet been established, particularly the involvement of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Some studies emphasized that Hb may augment the vascular responsiveness to angiotensin (Ang)-II. It was also reported that Hb, as well as Ang-II, influences the synthesis of 8-iso prostaglandin F2 alpha, which has an impact on renal flow and possibly RAS. Hb in the presence of H 2 O 2 gains enzymatic activity. Thus, it is possible that Hb directly and/or indirectly can activate RAS. In this study, we monitored the effect of ferrous- and ferryl-Hb, and H 2 O 2 alone, on conversion of Ang-I to its active metabolites. The structural and immunological identity of the resulting products were evaluated by reversed phase C-18 HPLC and ELISA, respectively. Additionally, ACE-like activity of Hbs was measured spectrophotometrically by determining their ability to react with the ACE substrate, the synthetic tripeptide N-(3-(2-furyl)acryloyl)-L-phenylalanylglycylglycine. Results indicate that while ferrous-Hb can serve as a receptor for Ang-I, its ferryl form possesses ACE-like activity, being able to convert, within minutes, Ang-I to Ang-II, Ang-III, Ang-IV, Ang (1-7) and other unresolved fragments. H 2 O 2 itself had a very limited hydrolyzing effect on Ang-I. Based on this study, it can be concluded that ACE-like activity of Hb with rapid formation of active angiotensins may be a contributor to the still unexplained vasoconstrictive response observed immediately after Hb administration.