Effect of Fenoldopam Mesylate in Critically Ill Patients at Risk for Acute Renal Failure is Dose Dependent
AbstractBackground: Acute renal failure (ARF) is common and difficult to prevent, especially in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with cancer. Therapeutic trials with various agents have generally been ineffective in preventing ARF. We describe the effects of two different doses of the dopamine DA-1 receptor agonist fenoldopam mesylate on renal function in a series of critically ill cancer patients at risk of developing ARF. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 100 consecutive patients who received fenoldopam mesylate for at least 72 h in the medical and surgical ICUs of The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center who were at risk of developing ARF. Eighteen patients received low-dose fenoldopam mesylate (≤ 0.05 µg/kg/min). The remaining 82 patients received high-dose fenoldopam mesylate (0.07–0.1 µg/kg/min). Data were collected relating to drug dosage, patient demographics, severity of illness, and indices of renal function. Results: Patients were moderately ill, with a mean APACHE II score of 18 ± 6 at initiation of fenoldopam infusion. Eighty-five percent of patients had at least two risk factors for the development of ARF, and 20% had four. For the group overall, the incidence of ARF was 13%, and the hospital mortality rate was 37%. When compared with the low-dose group, patients who received high-dose fenoldopam had a significantly shorter ICU length of stay despite a significantly higher APACHE II score ( p = 0.01). The high-dose group also had a highly significant decrease in serum creatinine levels at 72 h ( p = 0.005). Conclusions: These data support the hypothesis that fenoldopam mesylate may provide a degree of dose-dependent renal protection in cancer patients with early acute renal failure.