Biological Diagnosis of B-Cell Neoplasia
AbstractCancer Investigation, 4( l), 69-80 ( 1 986) SPECIAL ARTICLE Editor: Alan S. Rabson. M.D. Biological Diagnosis of B-Cell Neoplasia Edward H. Lipford, M.D. and Jeffrey Cossman, M.D. Hematopathology Section Laboratory of Pathology National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Heairh Bethesda, Maryland 20205 INTRODUCTION Lymphoid neoplasms t-lymphocytic leukemias, and non-Hodgkinâs lymphomas are comprised of the neoplastic counterparts of normal lymphocytes of either the B-cell or T-cell differentiation pathways. The principal malignant cell in any leukemia or lymphoma may differ significantly from that in other malignancies of the same type in its manner or stage of differentiation. This heterogeneity is further reflected in a spectrum of phenotypic expression of cellular markers and functional capacity which link the neoplasms to specific differentiation compartments. It is now evident that the entire spectrum of lymphoid differentiation is represented by the many forms of lymphoid neoplasms. For example, neoplasms committed to the B-cell lineage exhibit phenotypic characteristics ranging from B-cell precursors (pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia) to mature B cells (B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkinâs lymphomas) and, finally, to terminally differentiated plasma cells (multiple myeloma). In this review, we will discuss neoplasms of B-lymphocytic lineage with a focus centered on preterminal B-cell neoplasms.