Although it has been established that nifedipine is associated with gingival overgrowth (GO), there is little information on the prevalence and severity of this condition in the Brazilian population. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of nifedipine-induced GO in Brazilian patients and the risk factors associated using a Clinical Index for Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth (Clinical Index DIGO). The study was carried out on 35 patients under treatment with nifedipine (test group) and 35 patients without treatment (control group). Variables such as demographic (age, gender), pharmacological (dose, time of use), periodontal (plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, clinical insertion level, and bleeding on probing), and GO were assessed. Statistical analysis showed no association between GO and demographic or pharmacological variables. However, there was an association between GO and periodontal variables, except for plaque index. According to our study, the Clinical Index DIGO can be used as a parameter to evaluate GO. Therefore, we conclude that the presence of gingival inflammation was the main risk factor for the occurrence of nifedipine-induced GO.