The abrasion resistance of socks
l, Arzu Marmarali and Nida Og
Department of Textile Engineering, Ege University, I
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explain the yarn parameters and some ﬁnishing process
that can affect the abrasion resistance of socks in detail.
Design/methodology/approach – The abrasion tests were made on socks produced from the most
popular ﬁbers (cotton, wool, PAC, PES, PA, and blends of these) by the Modiﬁcated Martindale
method. The effects of ﬁber type, yarn count (for single and ply yarn), combing process, softness
process with silicone and mercerization process to the abrasion resistance were investigated.
Findings – It was found that the use of coarse yarns, addition of polyester, polyamide ﬁbers or
elastane ﬁlaments to the structure and application of the mercerization process increase the abrasion
resistance of the socks. However, the silicone softeners decrease this value. The resistance of wool
socks is higher than acrylics.
Originality/value – Socks, which are a necessary item of clothing, need to be comfortable,
affordable and retain their quality throughout their life. The most signiﬁcant problem is abrasion
which can greatly reduce the material’s life. To determine the parameters affecting the sock abrasion
will be useful both for producer and for consumer.
Keywords Abrasion, Wear resistance, Yarn testing, Garment industry
Paper type Research paper
Abrasion, which is an unavoidable problem, usually occurs on the on the heel, sole and
toe of the socks. The socks rub within the shoes, slippers or even the ground. The life of
sock becomes shorter with the changing in mechanical properties and decreasing in
quality due to abrasion.
The ﬁrst stage of abrasion is small balls entanglement because of the loose ﬁbers
unravels from the fabric surface during usage and washing. Eventually the ﬁbers
which bind the balls to the surface breakdown and a hole occur. If the sock consists of
synthetic ﬁbers with natural ﬁbers, during rubbing action natural ﬁbers, which give
the desirable properties of the sock, move away, only synthetic ﬁbers remain. This
gives the sock undesirable appearance and decrease the overall fabric thickness.
Until now some research related with the abrasion resistance socks has been
completed. Wisniak and Krzeminska (1987) made both laboratory tests and usage tests
to research abrasion resistance of seven different types of socks consisting of different
rates of Co-PA. For abrasion resistance they used pilling test device. They used the
abrasion time of the sample as an assessment. They found that the results from the
laboratory and the usage tests were different.
Miajewska and Kazmierczak (1983) searched the abrasion resistance of terry socks.
They used PA yarns for ground, wool and wool blends (wool þ PA, PAC þ PA,
wool þ PAC) also cotton and cotton blends (Co þ PA, Co þ viscone þ PA) for pile.
They found that the result of the wool and wool bends are evenly matched to each
other. Abrasion resistance of the cotton socks was better than wool socks. They used
different yarns for piles to increase the abrasion resistance of the socks and found that
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
Received 22 April 2007
Revised 31 January 2008
Accepted 31 January 2008
International Journal of Clothing
Science and Technology
Vol. 21 No. 1, 2009
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited