An enterprise revolution for
Faculty of Business Administration, Economics and Political Science,
The British University in Egypt, Cairo, Egypt, and
Department of Entrepreneurship and Research Development,
The American University of Cairo, New Cairo, Egypt
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to determine the changes that are needed in order to create
entrepreneurial graduate students and institutions in Egypt that are more relevant to the needs of the
country post revolution, by applying the theories of entrepreneurship education and intrapreneurship
to Egyptian universities.
Design/methodology/approach – The authors use existing research on entrepreneurship education
and entrepreneurial institutions, combined with the results of primary research on Egyptian students, to
determine what the country’s universities ought to do if they are to meet the challenge.
Findings – It is concluded that Egyptian universities will need to transform not only what they
teach, but how they teach, whilst at the same time transforming their own institutions in order to
create more entrepreneurial learning environments.
Research limitations/implications – The paper is based on the application of theory and a limited
study in one institution. A before and after experiment is needed on a larger scale, over a longer
time-period and in a cross section of institutions.
Practical implications – The results should inform both policy formulation and the delivery of
education in Egypt and the Region.
Originality/value – The conclusions have relevance for educational policy makers, university
administrators and university academics, not just in business and economics but across all disciplines,
and not just in Egypt and the Middle East but more broadly.
Keywords Egypt, Universities, Entrepreneurialism, Educational policy, Curricula,
Entrepreneurship education, Educational revolution
Paper type Viewpoint
In their attempts to promote entrepreneurship, governments around the world have
begun to recognize the importance of education, at all levels, and in many countries there
has emerged a drive to promote enterprise through the teaching of entrepreneurship in
schools, colleges and universities. In the US entrepreneurship has been taught
in universities since the late 1940s, when the ﬁrst recorded course was taught at the
Harvard Business School. In the UK and Western Europe, the ﬁrst courses were launched
much later, in the early 1980s. As in the USA, they were intended to encourage students
to start their own businesses on graduation (Brown, 1990; Kirby, 1992). Since then there
has been a global proliferation of courses (Vesper and Gartner, 1998), and an ongoing
debate on the nature and purpose of entrepreneurship education. The result has been a
shift away from new venture creation to a much broader concept that recognizes
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Education, Business and Society:
Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues
Vol. 5 No. 2, 2012
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited