Stature estimation from hand and phalanges lengths of Egyptians
Sahar Refaat Habib MD (Assistant Professor of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology)
Nashwa Nabil Kamal MD (Lecturer of Community Medicine)
Forensic Medicine & Toxicology Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Minia, Egypt
Community Medicine Dept., Faculty of Medicine, Minia University, Egypt
Received 17 August 2009
Received in revised form 4 November 2009
Accepted 22 December 2009
Available online 29 January 2010
Estimation of stature from extremities plays an important role in identifying the deceased in forensic
examinations. This study examines the relationship between stature and hand and phalanges lengths
among Egyptians. Stature, hand and phalanges lengths of 159 subjects, 82 males and 77 females (18–
25 years) were measured. Statistical analysis indicated that bilateral variation was insigniﬁcant for all
measurements. Sex differences were signiﬁcant for all measurements. Linear and multiple regression
equations for stature estimation were calculated. Correlation coefﬁcients were found to be positive,
but little ﬁnger measurements of male and distal phalanges of female ﬁngers were not correlated with
stature. Regression equations were checked for accuracy by comparing the estimated stature and actual
Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
Identiﬁcation of an individual is the main objective of forensic
Stature is considered to be one of the criteria for
personal identiﬁcation and one of the ‘big fours’ of forensic anthro-
Estimation of stature of an individual from the skeletal
material or from the mutilated or amputated limbs or parts of
limbs plays a conspicuous role in facilitating personal identiﬁca-
tion in incident of murder, accidents or natural disasters.
authors have successfully tried to estimate the stature from percu-
taneous body measurements,
some from isolated long bone or
some from foot dimensions,
mated statute from cephalo-facial anthropometry,
focused their attention on estimation of stature using radiographic
Some studies have also presented estimations of stat-
ure from hand, ﬁnger and phalange length.
Regarding stature estimation from the Egyptian population,
researchers have looked at hand length and breadth.
of body build using percutaneous tibeal length and bimaleolar
breadth have also been studied.
According to Jasuja and Singh
 there are no statistically signiﬁcant difference between actual
length and print length of hands or phalanges. Consequently, the
purpose of the present study is to analyse the anthropometric rela-
tionship between length of hands and phalanges with stature in
Egyptians and to devise regression formulae to estimate stature
from these dimensions which also can be applied to hand or pha-
langes prints in scenes of crime.
2. Materials and methods
A sample of 159 normal healthy Egyptian volunteers (77
females and 82 males) was taken from students studying at Minia
University, in the age bracket of 18–25 years. All the subjects were
right handed and belonged to middle income groups. According to
standard ethics drawn by the Minia University ethical committee
for human experimentation, subjects were examined for stature,
hand length and phalanges lengths, right and left sides. It is worth
mentioning that the thumb was not considered in the present
study because of its variable ﬂexibility as compared to other ﬁn-
gers which are straight.
An anthropometric rod was used for the measurements of stat-
ure and a sliding calliper for hand and phalanges measurements.
The measurements were taken and repeated and the mean mea-
sures were recorded (by one observer) in order to avoid inter-ob-
server errors, and taken in centimetres to the nearest millimetres
according to the techniques described by Vallois.
Stature is the
distance from the highest point of the top of the head in the mid
sagittal plane to the feet horizontal plane. The subject stood bare
foot on a ﬂat surface.
An Anthropometer was placed in straight
vertical position in front of the subject with the head oriented in
eye–ear–eye plane (Frankfurt plane). Feet axis was parallel or
slightly divergent and hands hung down. The movable rod of the
Anthropometer was brought into contact with the vertex in the
mid sagittal plane.
1752-928X/$ - see front matter Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +20 0862356034, mobile: +20 0123711695.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (S.R. Habib).
Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 17 (2010) 156–160
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