Leafeair transfer of organochlorine pesticides from
three selected vegetables
Xinglun Yang, Xin Jiang
, Guifen Yu, Fenxia Yao, Yongrong Bian, Fang Wang
State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road,
Nanjing 210008, China
Received 6 July 2006; received in revised form 14 November 2006; accepted 25 November 2006
The leafeair transfer of OCPs varied signiﬁcantly among chemicals and the three selected vegetables.
The leafeair transfer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in three kinds of vegetables, namely lettuce, romaine and garlic leaves was
investigated. It was found that although the uptake of OCPs by the three selected vegetables was similar under controlled conditions, the
depuration varied signiﬁcantly among chemicals and plant species in terms of elimination rate, ﬁnal residue of each OCPs, as well as the effect
of temperature on the residue of OCPs in the vegetables. The results indicated that neither QCB nor HCB could be trapped tightly by any of the
three selected vegetables, in contrast, p,p
-DDT could be retained effectively by all of them; the retainment of a-HCH, g-HCH, p,p
dependent on the vegetable species, of which the garlic leaf had the biggest ability to trap them. Our work provided insight into the behavior of
OCPs in the agroecosystem.
Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Leafeair transfer; Vegetable; Organochlorine pesticide; SOCs
The airevegetation exchange of semivolatile organic com-
pounds (SOCs) such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)
plays an important role in inﬂuencing atmospheric concentra-
tions, environmental persistence, regional/global cycling and
human exposure (Simonich and Hites, 1994, 1995).
Previous studies indicated the differences in the airevege-
tation exchange of SOCs (Komp and McLachlan, 1997b; Lead
et al., 1996; Ockenden et al., 1998; Smith et al., 2001;
Wagrowski and Hites, 1997). There are three main factors
that would result in the differences. Detailedly, the ﬁrst is the
physicochemical properties of compound, of which octanole
air partition coefﬁcient (K
) is the most important because
it controls the atmospheric deposit mechanisms (i.e., dry
gaseous deposition, dry particulate deposition, wet deposition)
(Welsch-Pausch et al., 1995). A framework developed by
McLachlan (1999) suggested that the uptake behavior of
compounds with log K
9 was determined by equilibrium
partitioning; for 9 < log K
< 11 kinetically limited gaseous
deposition dominated, and for log K
! 11 particle-bound
deposition was most important. The second is the properties
of vegetation. Variations between plants in surface morphol-
ogy, lipid content, composition and permeability of the cutic-
ular skin might profoundly inﬂuence the airevegetation
exchange. Komp and McLachlan (1997a) found that PCB
concentration varied signiﬁcantly among the ﬁve different
grasses. Bohme et al. (1999) found that the concentration of
compound with log K
less than eight varied by a factor of
about 30 among the 10 agricultural plants. Ockenden et al.
(1998) suggested that it was necessary to collect samples of
the same species when vegetation pollutant burdens were
* Corresponding author. Tel./fax: þ86 25 86881195.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (X. Jiang).
0269-7491/$ - see front matter Ó 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Environmental Pollution 148 (2007) 555e561