The frequency of intracerebral mass lesions (ICML) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is not well established. Cryptococcoma seems to be a rare affiction. The objective of this study was to analyze the etiology of ICML in patients with HIV infection and CM. The methodology was a retrospective review of cases diagnosed in two Spanish hospitals between September 1988 and April 1995. Eighteen cases of CM were identified. Computed tomography was performed on presentation in 17 cases. Only one patient had ICML, which progressed while on antifungal treatment and regressed when anti-Toxoplasma treatment was established. During follow-up, two additional patients developed ICML and were successfully treated as toxoplasmosis. Overall, 3 out of 17 patients (18%) developed ICML and all three were cured when anti-Toxoplasma treatment was implemented. In our study, cerebral toxoplasmosis was the only presumed cause of ICML. In areas of high prevalence of toxoplasmosis, ICML in patients with CM may not by cryptococcomas. Consequently, in these areas of high prevalence, a trial of toxo-therapy should be strongly considered for patients with CM and ICML.
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