Ocean & Coastal Management 49 (2006) 110–132
Decision processes for large marine ecosystems
management and policy
P.O. Box 445, Victoria, Mahe, Seychelles
A number of studies have speculated on the utility of publicly available information for decision-
making in the context of large marine ecosystems (LME) management. An indicator-based study
using the pressure-state-response model was carried out among senior decision-makers in the
Seychelles government to determine (i) whether the precautionary principle is applied in policy
development; (ii) the relative importance of ‘control-and-command’ and market mechanisms in the
management of living marine resources; (iii) the inﬂuence of pubic opinion in decision-making and
(iv) linkages between the various LME management modules. Results indicate that policy-makers in
Seychelles apply the precautionary principle in most situations, are more oriented towards the
‘command-and-control’ approach, and are very sensitive to public opinions. The study further
indicated that whilst policy-makers in Seychelles acknowledged the use of indicators within the LME
strategy, some gaps including limitations of indicators in conveying complex interactions were
identiﬁed which require further study.
r 2006 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The concept of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is probably the most far-reaching
aspect of the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea Convention (UNCLOS),
enabling states to pursue sovereign rights to explore and exploit resources beyond their
territorial waters . However, the Convention also stipulates state responsibility for the
protection and preservation of the marine environment (Article 192) from pollution,
including pollution from land-based sources and over-ﬁshing. Furthermore, UNCLOS
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