Composted grape marc as growing medium for hypostases
, Cihat K
, Roger Hartmann
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, 06110 Ankara, Turkey
Division Soil Physics, Soil Management and Soil Care, Faculty of Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences,
University of Gent, Coupure Links 653-B-9000, Gent, Belgium
Received 28 February 2000; received in revised form 18 October 2000; accepted 23 October 2000
The use of composted grape marc (CGM) as a plant growth medium was investigated with Hypostases (Hypostases phyllostagya).
Seven media were prepared using CGM mixed, in dierent ratios, with native peat and perlite. The following mixtures were used:
100% CGM, 75% CGM + 25% peat, 50% CGM + 50% perlite, 25% CGM + 75% peat, 50% CGM + 25% peat + 25% perlite, 25%
CGM + 50% peat + 25% perlite and 100% peat. The experiment was arranged in a randomized plot design with four replicates under
greenhouse conditions. After a growing period of three months, some horticultural parameters were measured. Besides, some
physical and chemical properties of the growing medium were determined. The mixtures of 50% CGM + 50% peat, 25% CGM + 75%
peat and 100% peat were found to be most suitable based on the horticultural parameters. This was con®rmed through the physical
characteristics. Up to 50% composted grape marc can be used in mixtures with peat on account of its low cost and high nutrient
content. Ó 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Growing medium; Grape marc; Hypostases; Hypostases phyllostagya; Peat; Perlite
Increasing demand and rising costs for peat as
growing medium in horticulture have led to the search
for high quality and low cost substrates as an alterna-
tive. In addition, environmental constraints and recy-
cling requirements of organic wastes have suggested
possible use of wastes of organic origin. Composted
grape marc (CGM) has been used as an organic fertilizer
(Grafe, 1979), or plant growth medium for ornamental
plants (Chen et al., 1988) and vegetables (Leoni and
Madeddu, 1992). Native as well as imported peat is
commonly used as growing media in Turkey. Native
peat has some quality problems such as salinity and high
y et al., 1989), while imported peat is quite
Elad and Shtienberg (1994), and Gordodecki and
Hadar (1990) reported that water extractable organic
compounds in CGM reduced the activity of some plant
diseases and suppressed soil-borne pathogens.
Hypostases (Hypostases phyllostagya) is a plant
commonly used indoor as well outdoor as an orna-
mental plant. The objective of this study was to observe
the eect of CGM and mixtures with peat and perlite on
the growth of hypostases.
2.1. Growing media
Composted grape marc (CGM), peat and perlite were
used pure or as components of dierent mixtures in this
study. Grape marc was composted as described by Chen
et al. (1988) and mixed with dierent combinations of
peat and perlite. Peat was taken from Bolu-Yenicaa,
located in the Western part of the Black Sea region of
Turkey. Its humi®cation degree was H6 according to the
Von Post Scale. Perlite had a coarse grain size. All
materials were sieved through a 6.35 mm screen before
use. The following mixtures were used:
1. 100% CGM
2. 75% CGM + 25% peat;
Bioresource Technology 78 (2001) 103±106
Corresponding author. Fax: +90-312-317-8465.
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (A. Baran).
0960-8524/01/$ - see front matter Ó 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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