Biomass and Bioenergy 30 (2006) 908–914
CEN technical speciﬁcation for solid biofuels—Fuel speciﬁcation
, Jouni Valtanen
, Jan-Erik Levlin
VTT, P.O. Box 1603, FI-40101 Jyva
KCL—Oy Keskuslaboratorio—Centrallaboratorium Ab, P.O. Box 70, FI-02151 Espoo, Finland
Received 17 November 2005; accepted 9 June 2006
Available online 28 August 2006
The European Committee for Standardization, CEN (TC335) is currently preparing 30 technical speciﬁcations for solid biofuels. The
two most important technical speciﬁcations being developed deal with classiﬁcation and speciﬁcation (CEN/TS 14961) and quality
assurance for solid biofuels (CEN/TS 15234). The classiﬁcation of solid biofuels is based on their origin and source. The fuel production
chain of fuels shall be unambiguously traceable back over the whole chain. The biofuels are divided into the following sub-categories for
classiﬁcation: (1) woody biomass, (2) herbaceous biomass, (3) fruit biomass and (4) blends and mixtures. The purpose of classiﬁcation is
to allow the possibility to differentiate and specify biofuel material based on origin with as much detail as needed. The quality
classiﬁcation in a table form was prepared only for major traded solid biofuels: briquettes, pellets, exhausted olive cake, wood chips, hog
fuel, wood logs, sawdust, bark, and straw bales. Additionally, a general table was compiled for other biofuels. The most signiﬁcant
properties are normative, and shall be stated in the fuel speciﬁcation. The classiﬁcation is ﬂexible, and hence the producer or the
consumer may select from each property class the classiﬁcation that corresponds to the produced or desired fuel quality. This so-called
‘‘free classiﬁcation’’ does not bind different characteristics with each other. An advantage of this classiﬁcation is that the producer and
the consumer may agree upon characteristics case-by-case. To protect household consumers, examples of so-called ‘‘high-quality’’ fuels
are given as an informative annex A of CEN/TS 14961. This paper describes the fuel speciﬁcations and classes of solid biofuels, which
was published in April 2005.
r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Standardisation; Solid biofuels; Classiﬁcation; Classes; Speciﬁcations
1. Preparation of the technical speciﬁcations for solid
The solid biofuel standardisation work is supervised by a
Technical Committee (TC335), the secretariat operating
under the Swedish Standardisation Organisation, SIS.
About 30 technical speciﬁcations will be worked up in ﬁve
working groups (WG) [1–3]:
WG 1—Terminology and deﬁnitions
WG 2—Fuel speciﬁcations and classes, and quality
WG 3—Sampling and sample reduction
WG 4—Mechanical and physical properties
WG 5—Chemical properties
Working group 2 is managed by the Finnish secretariat
and work includes Fuel speciﬁcations and classes  and
Fuel quality assurance .
2. Scope and classiﬁcation of solid biofuels
The following biofuels will be included in the mandate of
the TC335 :
products from agriculture and forestry,
vegetable waste from agriculture and forestry,
vegetable waste from the food processing industry,
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Corresponding author. Tel.: +358 20 722 2550, fax: +358 20 722 2598.
E-mail addresses: eija.alakangas@vtt.ﬁ (E. Alakangas),
jouni.valtanen@kcl.ﬁ (J. Valtanen), jan-erik.levlin@iki.ﬁ (J.-E. Levlin).