A routing protocol based on node density for ad hoc networks
, Samuel Pierre, Benjamin Macab
Department of Computer Engineering, Mobile Computing and Networking Research Laboratory (LARIM),
Ecole Polytechnique de Montr
eal, C.P. 6079, Succ. Centre-Ville, Quebec, Montreal, Canada H3C 3A7
Available online 17 April 2004
Ad hoc networks are a type of mobile network that functions without any ﬁxed infrastructure. One of the weak-
nesses of ad hoc networks is that a route used between a source and a destination is likely to break during commu-
nication. To solve this problem, one approach consists of selecting routes whose nodes have the most stable behavior.
Another strategy aims at improving the route repair procedure. This paper proposes a method for improving the
success rate of local route repairs in mobile ad hoc networks. This method is based on the density of the nodes in the
neighborhood of a route and on the availability of nodes in this neighborhood. Theoretical computation and simulation
results show that the data packet loss rate decreased signiﬁcantly compared to other methods which are well-docu-
mented in the literature. In addition, the time required to complete a local route repair following a failure was sig-
Ó 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks; Route repair; AODV
In recent years, we have witnessed considerable
accomplishments in the design, development, and
deployment of wireless communication networks.
Personal and mobile communications are made
possible by the convergence of several diﬀerent
technologies, speciﬁcally computer networking
protocols, wireless/mobile communication sys-
tems, distributed computing and Internet [6,14,25].
The mixed wired and wireless network topologies
that are becoming so common, including ﬁxed and
ad-hoc connection types, create the need to ratio-
nally exploit dynamically variable routing as a
function of network conditions .
At the same time, a phenomenal growth in data
traﬃc and a wide range of new requirements of
emerging applications call for new mechanisms for
the control and management of communication
networks . The emergence of real-time appli-
cations and the widespread use of wireless and
mobile devices have generated the need to provide
quality of service (QoS) support in wireless and
mobile networking environments .
A mobile ad hoc network (MANETs) is a mobile
wireless network composed of several mobile
nodes, likely to communicate among themselves
Corresponding author. Tel.: +1-514-340-3240x4685; fax:
E-mail addresses: firstname.lastname@example.org (A. Quin-
tero), email@example.com (S. Pierre), benjamin.maca-
firstname.lastname@example.org (B. Macab
1570-8705/$ - see front matter Ó 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ad Hoc Networks 2 (2004) 335–349