The recent success of vector computers such as the Cray-1 and array processors such as those manufactured by Floating Point Systems has increased interest in making vector operations available to the FORTRAN programmer. The FORTRAN standards committee is currently considering a successor to FORTRAN 77, usually called FORTRAN 8x, that will permit the programmer to explicitly specify vector and array operations. Although FORTRAN 8x will make it convenient to specify explicit vector operations in new programs, it does little for existing code. In order to benefit from the power of vector hardware, existing programs will need to be rewritten in some language (presumably FORTRAN 8x) that permits the explicit specification of vector operations. One way to avoid a massive manual recoding effort is to provide a translator that discovers the parallelism implicit in a FORTRAN program and automatically rewrites that program in FORTRAN 8x. Such a translation from FORTRAN to FORTRAN 8x is not straightforward because FORTRAN DO loops are not always semantically equivalent to the corresponding FORTRAN 8x parallel operation. The semantic difference between these two constructs is precisely captured by the concept of dependence . A translation from FORTRAN to FORTRAN 8x preserves the semantics of the original program if it preserves the dependences in that program. The theoretical background is developed here for employing data dependence to convert FORTRAN programs to parallel form. Dependence is defined and characterized in terms of the conditions that give rise to it; accurate tests to determine dependence are presented; and transformations that use dependence to uncover additional parallelism are discussed.
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